Cult of Priapa and Venus
In southern Italy, in its that part which one at the ancient was termed as Great Greece, long before the base of Rome there were assemblies Phoenician, Egyptian and Grecian. These people have brought with themselves the religion and tempers, and along with it and sacred prostitution in which one bottom east cult of Venus lay.
In the north of Great Greece Etruria, which one population, but to words of historians was, happened from Pelazgov; however, on the newest archaeological probes, it is necessary to consider as their native land Lydia. And meanwhile the cult of Fallusa and Bahusa has been brought to Italy, according to Geraklita, sacrificers of Kibelly, koribantami. These koribanty, or as them differently termed, kabiry, have come from Phrygia where them have charged of dual fratricide; leaving, they have stolen a sacred basket (tank) in which one it was stored fallus god Bahusa and have brought it with itself to Etruria. Expelled the native land, they have solved to be justified in country Etruskov; here they became propovedyvat the teaching, convincing the people to worship to Fallusu and a sacred tank. Soon from Etruskov this new religious teaching with all ceremonies and customs has transferred to Romans. Originating of this cult in Rome, apparently, not so ancient parentage, – as during an epoch of tsars the cult of Venus was not known yet; Apparently, the cult of Bahusa and Priapa was unknown also. As to a cult of Priapa, in particular, that it is necessary to suppose that during some time frame it existed in one only Etruria. Already at Ateneja we discover the indicating on a reprobate conduct of life Etruskov, on prostituirovanie the daughters, were in a course among some people of Latsiuma, somehow: at messalijtsev, samnitov and lakrijtsev, but he speaks nothing concerning Romans.
On etrusskih and the italo-Greek cemeteries, really, variety of the coloured tanks on which one various scenes of a cult of prostitution as we about it speak more low, in the head about real monuments but prostitution history more in detail are figured is discovered. On all these monuments there are images of gifts which one were brought by girls in temples of Babylon and the Shooting gallery, Bubastis and Naukrata, in Corinth and Athenes. The devoted girl sits in a temple beside a statue of the goddess; the stranger for the known price acquires the right to possession it, it lays the gained money to altar bottom. This shameful auction, thus, enriched a temple or, more correctly, the sacrificer who is, of course, most the interested person in this deal. Such form of a cult of prostitution, obviously, was favourite in Phoenician and Grecian assemblies of Italy as it is iterated almost without any alternatives on all funeral tanks …
«Pictures on etrusskih tanks point the same attenuatous perversity which one has discovered to itself a wide circulation among an aboriginal population and has made of it blind slaves to sensuality and rasping passions. The bestiality and a pederasty represented common enough appearance, and against all this abomination flaw assimilated by all ages and all levels of population, there were no other means of strife, except redemption and refinement ceremonies, – which one only partly diminished their wide circulation. As at all ancient people, dialogue of floors was tribute to the nature, and the woman submitting to animal instincts of the man, was is ordinary a patient victim of its lust: it belonged to the strong. The physical nature of natural ancestors of Romans, however, perfectly is in harmony with their impudent sensuality: Their sexual organs were similar on bychachi, they resembled on a gantry, and in the field of an end at them was klochek reddish hair, the small meat and hairy appendage, a vestige existing is no time a true tailing. There is no saying, during which epoch this strange sign of animal temperament has absolutely disappeared, but it was saved in allegorical ikonologii, in the capacity of a distinctive feature of satyrs and fauns.
Further we see the same cult of prostitution in Sicily. Here, in a temple of Venus Eritsejsky, slaves, which one, as earlier in Corinth and in Asia, prostituirovali partly with a view of dressing of temples, partly for the purpose of the redemption of characteristic freedom have been collected. The cult of Venus Eritsejsky prospered, but in reign of Tiverija this temple has been launched and destroyed. Then on an order of the emperor it was restavrirovan, and girls-slaves fulfilled obligations of priestesses of Venus.
In Etruria one more cult analogous to Lingama with a cult Indian and Fallusa Asian prospered. Their purposes were identical, – deprived of innocence of girls till a marriage, – and consequently it also concerns to sacred prostitution. It etrusskoe the godhood which one we know not only under its images on ancient historical monuments, but also under compositions of Arnoba and sacred Augustine, was termed as Mutun and Mutuna as was a godhood and staminate and a feminine gender. Temples of this godhood represented the small buildings allocated in groves in which one the figure of sitting god was.
When the cult of sacred prostitution was spread in Rome and in the south of Italy, Priap and Mutun have been honoured as the godhoods yielding fruitfulness to the woman and force to her spouse, the averting charms directed against a health of the wedded union and pregnancy of women. All these kind qualities assigned by it also have formed the base for establishment of special custom of religious prostitution; the custom etog consisted that reduced in graven image Priapa young newly married and set her on a godhood figure.
«Sacred Augustine says that Roman matrons had a custom to set young newly married Priapa on monstrously colossal penis, and this custom was considered quite decent and pious.
Sed quid hoc dicam, cum ibi sit et Priapus nimius masculus, super cujus immanissimum et turpissimum fascinum, sedere nova nupta jubeatur, more honestissimo et religiosissimo matronarum.
Laktans in turn speaks, a leah «I Should mention Mutune (Mutunus) on which one penis set on custom young newly married. – to it it as though brought to it maiden in a victim the innocence. Et Mulunus in cujus sinu pudendo nubentes proesident; utuillarum puditiam prio deus delibasse videatur».
All these customs were, obviously, are skidded from India and the western Asia where sacred prostitution has originated for the first time.
Childless women resorted to mercy of this godhood which one should destroy the charms hindering a child-bearing; in the same halter Arnold speaks, being converted to the countrymanen: a leah you reduce also as with the greatest availability of the women under protection of Mutuna? And, to destroy nonexistent imaginary charms, unless you do not cause them to clasp legs awful huge Fallus of this graven image? Etiame Mutunus, cujus immanibus pudendis horrentique fascino, vestras inequitare matronas, et auspicabil ducitis et optatis.
While the lowest cls ispovedyvali a cult of Priapa with great feeling and deep superstition, the society looked with contempt at this senseless worship the Asian graven image. The maiden legislators have perceived all advantage of this cult which one largely contributed in population magnification. But at heart they did not attach it any meaning; so Goratsy in the letter to the friend says that from the fig which have been cut down by it just, it will make a bench or Priapa, ad libitum. On statues which one were erected in temples in honour of Priapa, it was figured in the form of the hairy person with goaty legs and horns, in arms it held down a token; the huge penis over which one solemn oaths were sometimes said was an obligatory fittings of a figure.
During an epoch of initial evolution of a Latin civilisation Roman matrons and young girls did to it special honours and forgot for it even Venus. They brought to it numerous gifts and committed in honour of its immolation not only in public temples, but also at the house altars.
They fed appreciable wilt for this strange godhood, saving thus to the full the female chasity. It was for them an embodiment of a continuation of the family, it was a fruitfulness emblem, as Lingam in India and Osiris at Egyptians. They studded its image with leaves, crowned with its daisies of flowers and foetuses. And the daughter of August, as it is known, mounted every morning it so much wreaths, how much victims to it were necessary to bring to it at night. In known certain days married women fired celebratory lights before statues and under flute sounds danced at pedestals. After a sunset or in the morning before its sunrise they came, chastely having muffled in a coverlet, appealing for god Lampsaka to render protection of their love and to expel their belly from shameful infertility. And its nakedness at all did not confuse them.
Cult of Priapa so peculiarly perceived and put into practice, nevertheless could save, at least externally, the religious meaning; the error consisted that during ceremonies which one chasity was enough doubtful property, fair women and young girls occurbed near to women of dissolute behaviour. These priapicheskie festivals also should be considered therefore, as one of devices of the future corruption of morals of Roman women.
In the capacity of embodiments of wedded life and fruitfulness, Priap figured in the form of a penis, figured, as a dominant initiation, in various condition of common life. Bread, the glassfuls, all indispensable table and toilet accessories, jewelry, valves and plumes – on all these subjects we discover its image; it was made of precious metals, from a horn, an ivory, bronze, clay. Like Fallusu and Lingamu, it ministered also an amulet for women and children.
In a word, it could be discovered everywhere (the numerous pictures discovered in debris Pompey) and bear to it, thanks to this popularity, it even in a huge level loses character of obscenity; as we see it, for example, in Turkey and in some Algerian cities where it is known under name Carageuss. Peasants of Pullii and up to that moment term it: «Il membro santo».
Men have saved traditions of inhabitants of Lampsaka; they saw in it a godhood guarding a penis, god curing infectious and confidential illnesses. In a poem "Priapei" is narrated about one unfortunate which one was ill with a cruel lesion of a sexual organ. Being afraid to be subjected to process and being ashamed to tell about the parent of the illness, he is converted with entreaty to Priapu and healed without the aid of the doctor.
This poem indeed is the deed for history of venereal illnesses.
Teogonija the ancient people perfectly adapted to all their characteristic passions. So Romans, as well as at Greeks had a goddess of love who concerned patronising to their enjoyings; women appealed for it to teach to be pleasant and carry away to their art, and for that brought to it myrtles and voskurivali incenses.
There was in Rome, on an example of Athenes, two Venus: one Venus virtuous which one patronised chaste, pure love, but numbered a few admirers, another – Venus courtesans which one had major success. Its cult, truth, was not specially tempting and did not attract, therefore, in rows of its fanatics of priestesses which one would agree prostituirovat and its concerns. Some sacrificers tried to tolerate sacred traditions of the corinthian temples to Rome, but this trying appeared almost always unsuccessful, owing to scepticism inherent to them.
It is known that in Rome there were many temples devoted to Venus; we will mention the main things from them, Venus-victrix, Venus-genitrix, Venus-erycine, Venus volupia, Venus-salacia, Venus-myrtea, Venus-lubentia and etc. But in one of them sacred prostitution was not cultivated. Courtesans did not sell themselves in temples for the sake of concerns of the goddess and sacrificers, though sometimes and were donated this last to gain protection of Venus in love businesses; further it has put did not go. Temples of the goddess ministered primarily a mestome of appointments for lovers and a stock exchange for mercantile love deals. They have been overfilled by any gifts, mirrors and other toilet accessories, valves and specially priapami, brought on a vow. On altars pigeons, goats and a trestle were sacrificed. All pivotal festivals in honour of the goddess happened in the spring and consisted of dances, feastings and orgies like what happen at us during a carnival. All of them happened at night, out of limits of temples; all these promenades were collectively called «vigils of Venus». Thus, all the April long it was devoted to the goddess of love who was celebrated by young men and the courtesans bringing in these festivals a device of larger or smaller unruliness and obscenity, looking but to education and habits of participants of these vernal entertainments. In this field saying indeed is correct: Nihil novi sub sole.
Festivals of religious prostitution
We know that natives of Rome were: it was the small group of thieves, tramps and women same, as they, moral level. Before establishment of institute of spoilage by the maiden legislator, they did not have any moral regulations and sexual ratios, according to Titus Libya, stood at the same level, as in fauna. But we meet public women in Rome already and during a prehistoric epoch. Prostitutes from beaches of Tiber nicknamed she-wolves, Lupa just as in suburb of Athenes named Lukaina unfortunate dikteriad. Wet nurse Romula, Assa Laurentia, also belonged to number of these she-wolves; it was one of popular then prostitutes. Its home unit has gained title Lupanar, nevertheless festivals which one were settled in honour of it after death, were termed Lupercales; the senate has canceled them in a type of outrages happening on them.
And despite it, nevertheless it is possible to state, what exactly and an epoch of the maiden tsars begins a blooming continuance of ancient Rome: public agents the irreproachable honesty gived virtue examples.
Sabate says that «in arms of censors there were large powers for correcting of unforeseen laws of abuses, for a rearrangement in the field of public and a family life; unruliness was restrained by that respect which one was fed by citizens for honesty and moral initiations.
During this epoch there were no wars in the distant terrains, was not neither oofs, nor Asia, teaching of Epikura, which one Fabritsy discovered advisable only for enemies of the native land – a word, anything yet has not rendered corrupting influencing on Romans.
Later the luxury, delicacy, love to money and enjoyings have penetrated into all cls of a company and have corrupted it. Flaw which one have started to be discovered in a disturbing time of horrors of civil wars, began to prosper specially among a quiet situation and joys of the world. The become frequent adulteries, a dissolute conduct of life of bachelors, unrestrained debauchery – all it went hand in hand with victories and spoils of war and spread flaw of the whole world ».
Further during this epoch we see other she-wolf, by name of Flora which one one of the richest patricians of Rome, Tarutsy marries; perishing, it bequeaths the huge fortune to Rome.
Having accepted gold of the courtesan, the city by way of gratuity instal festival in honour of it.
It were so-called Florales which one happened in circuses under the direction of prostitutes and edilov.
These shameless festivals, which one Juvenal terms in the immortal verses pana et ci cences, have occurbed in VI century from the base of Rome. A leah is these are the same Plays of Flora which one have been skidded from Sabinjan in honour of Flora, the goddess of gardens? Anyway, these festivals had rather harlot character; at Laktansa they are featured in following words:
«Courtesans quitted the dwellings the whole tuple, preceded by the trumpeters, dressed in spacious clothings on a naked body, decorated with all jewelry; they prepared in circus where they were environed from different directions by the restricted people; here they dropped from themselves clothing and were demonstrated absolutely bared, with availability parading everything, everything was to spectators, and all this shameless exhibition was tracked by the harlotest telodvizhenijami. They ran, danced, struggled, springed, is exact athletes or clowns; each time the new voluptuous pair caused cries and an applause from a mouth of the raging people.
«And suddenly on arena at sounds of tubes the crowd of nude men was launched; there and then, public, at new enthusiastic cries of crowd, there was a terrifying orgy of debauchery. Once the Kathon, a inclement Kathon, was in circus while edily were plotted to yield a cue to start plays; presence of the great citizen seated to an orgy initiation. Courtesans remained dressed, tubes have ceased, the people were pending. To a kathon have let know that it is a unique hindrance to start plays; it has risen from a place and having closed down a flap the person, was deleted from circus. The people began to clap, courtesans have taken out the clothings, tubes have begun to sound and the show has begun.» The same public prostitution in honour of the goddess who was on-being only idolised prostitute, we see in the scenes of an erotic folly played round a statue of the Moloch and during festivals in honour of Izidy, which one Romans have not failed to borrow at Egyptians.
These festivals known for Iziak under a name, are featured by Apuleem in it «the Gold Ass». They happened sometimes in streets and on public roads where the men devoted in ordinances and women were refluxed from all extremities of a city; all of them have been dressed in the pellucid white clothings and went, shocking metallical sistrami.
All this procession was directed to a temple of the goddess after sacrificers of Izidy who played the most abominable, abomination role in this cult of prostitution; they carried in arms fallus, made of gold, «the honoured image worthy respect of the goddess» as speaks Apulej. As soon as the crowd entered in a temple, consecration to ordinances of Izidy, i.e. a scene of the monstrous sensual orgies analogous Floralia about which one we just spoke began.
The same sacrificers of Izidy, beggars and procurers, abomination immorality, played a taking priority role and other festivals of prostitution in honour of Bacchus, known orgies under a name or dionissiak as Bahus was considered as one of Osiris’s embodyings. For celebration of Dionisiak selected predominantly solitarier places as the seclusion inspired vakhanok and sounds of voices were spaced apart more clearly. Evohe! Evohe! – cry of admirers of Bacchus was that; this cry, under the legend, Jupiter is no time fired courage in a shower of son Bacchus when he struggled with hindrances, erected the jealous Juno.
The sculpture of god is ordinary undersigned a vermilion. Gierofant, i.e. the sacrificer, bound to administer over ceremony, figured the creator, Demiourgos’a. Carriers of plumes were termed Lampadophores, and their head, Daduche, figured the sun.
Principal ceremony consisted in procession in which one time wore the tanks brimed with wine and decorated with vine shoots. Then there were young women with baskets, gap-filling foetuses and flowers; it were Cenephors. They were followed by the women playing flutes and cymbals, then women and the men who masked and have been changed clothes by satires, sirs, fauns, silenami, nymphs, vakhankami, all topped with violets and ivy leaves, with uncombed heads; their clothings have been adapted for abandoning bared everything, what followed conceal; all of them sang phallica, harlot songs in honour of Bahusa.
This noisy crowd followed Phallophores and Ityphalles; maiden without any shame paraded to all crowd the extension staminate sexual organs consolidated on hips by means of strops; the second wore the same, but in the much bigger size, consolidated on the extremity of the long pole. At last, procession was shorted by fourteen priestesses whom arhont, or the principal manager on the device of festivals, guaranteed any cookings.
«Having come to the assigned place, – whether it be in silent to working scaffolds or in a dean environed by rocks – all this mass of dissolute and fanatically tuned people dragged from the special container wearing at latinjan a title area ineffabilis, the image of Bahusa; it was put on Germ and in a victim to it brought a pig. Behind it necessary copious entertainment fruit and wine. Little by little, under the influence of abundant wine vozlijany, boosted cries, unlimited delights, dialogue of two floors, sensual excitation was, and the folly enveloped sacrificers of this abominable godhood. Each of the present arrived in public how if it was one in the whole world, the most shameful acts of debauchery were committed in the face of several honeycombs of spectators. Nude women ran back and forth, exciting men telodvizhenijam and shameless sentences. Men during these moments did not care that made in these caucuss of their wife, sisters and daughters; The dishonour did not tamper with them as it was mutual – a word, there is no type of debauchery which one would not be cultivated here with new refinement.
When night which one coated with the darkness all these of foulness, hurried to be deleted, giving way to clear rays of the East, a godhood again hid in arca intefabilis. Men, sated the drunk wine and raised by sensual enjoyings, were returned, reeling, in the home units, they were followed by women and children … all of them have been relaxed, disgraced!»
All these of foulness attained sometimes such monstrous sizes that the senate prohibited them often, but to destroy ultimately not could. Emperor Diokletianu posesses honour of their complete killing.
But courtesans played a role not only in an orb of religious festivals; according to Titus Libya, at Romans they appeared and on a scene. They figured in the submission figuring abduction by Sabinjanok, and were engaged in prostitution as soon as submission terminated; some authors of an antiquity do not make even any difference between theatres and brothels. Tertulian says even that the mouthpiece, intoning aloud the detailed specification statement of delights of these heroines of prostitution, pointed their place of residence and the price by which one their weasels were paid. Them was so much that, without being seated in internal halls of theatre, they took places on a scene and on a proscenium to be more on a type at spectators. Pompey after discovery of the theatre built by it has seen that the theatre is a shelter for debauchery and has converted it in a temple devoted to Venus, hoping this religious act to deflect from itself rebukes of censors. (Sabate). The courtesans participating in pantomimes, were demonstrated on a scene nude; They led before eyes of spectators sequentially all acts of prostitution, and later, during an epoch of Geliogabala, all it has gained quite real forms. So states Lampsid. Pleasures of Rome, the conqueror of the world were that!
At Titus Libya we also discover the specification statement of shocking outrages which one happened during these night religious caucuss, so-called orgies. It features ceremony of consecration to ordinances of Bahusa. This custom has been injected by priestess Paculla Minia who has devoted to a godhood of the two sons. Since then young men on the twentieth year were subject to dedication.
«The devoted young man was inducted by sacrificers into a vault where it has been quite given their bestial rasping passions. Terrible howls and sounds tsimbalov and drums deafened the cries escaping sometimes at a victim of violence.
Too copious nutriment and mass of the wine drunk behind desktop caused other excesses committed under the protection of a night gloom. Thorough mixing of ages and floors reigned.
Everyone contented the passion as it was necessary for it; about bashfulness was not pominu; the godhood temple was defiled by any implications of voluptuousness, up to the most unnatural. (Plura vivorum inter sese, quam feminarum esse stupra) ». If sometimes again devoted young men, having been ashamed of all it, resisted to dissolute sacrificers, and sometimes when they remissly fulfilled that from them was required, them sacrificed: being afraid of their immodesty, they were deprived by lives. Them proofly anchored to special machines which one picked up them and diped then in deep pits. Sacrificers to explain extinction of the young man, said that angered god was the originator of abduction.
Dances, leaps, cries of men and women – all it spoke divine inspiration, actually was caused by copious wine pairs, constituted principal point of all ceremony and ministered passage to new forms of debauchery. Sometimes women with a wild hair, having control over glowing plumes, diped these last in waters of Tiber, where they nevertheless not gasli. This imaginary miracle, Titus of Libya speaks, spoke that the plume combustible consisted of brimstone and to exhaust. Among participants of these night caucuss it was possible to meet people of various cls, up to Romans and Romans of society, and their number was huge. It was any more a company, not a circle of people, – all people shared in terrifying debauchery; on them even plots against an existing political system were constituted. This last condition has caused consul Postumija to be occupied with closer familiarizaiton with this company what he and has stated the senate. This reason also has motivated the senate to cancel these caucuss in 624 year, than the significant shock to a cult of Bahusa has been struck.
Having canceled on some time of Orgy, Romans nevertheless have saved a cult of "the kind goddess». However, men were not admitted any more during ordinances, but the debauchery has been saved to the full. In the sixth satire of Juvenal yields the specification statement which one separation is yielded by us in other our composition.
«Liberales» belonged to discharge of the same festivals; happened in March, in honour of Pater liber (an alias of Bahusa). Phallus played an outstanding role and in festivals Liberales. At Romans as we know, this character of staminate force was termed as Mutunom. «It was the harlot image, St. Augustine to whom worshipped not as fiduciary speaks, and is quite unclosed; during Liberales it solemnly transported on a chariot in city suburbs».
In Liviniume celebration of god Liber’a was prolonged the whole month during which one, according to Varrona, people indulged in enjoyings and debauchery. Voluptuous songs, indecent speeches as well as possible matched to acts. The dazzling chariot in which one huge Fallus was seated, slowly moved in a direction to the floor space. Here it was shut down also one of Roman matrons, mater familias, laid a wreath to this indecent image.
Festivals and ceremonies of sacred prostitution in Italy … were that